OCEB 2 - Business Intermediate

OMG Certified Expert in BPM™ 2 (OCEB™ 2)

Business Intermediate Level

The OCEB 2 Business Intermediate Exam starts by completing coverage of the BMM, including influencers, assessments, and modeling scenarios; and continues with advanced BPMN modeling in many areas; the advantages of a shared business-wide vocabulary as provided by SBVR and, based on this, the Business Rules approach. It concludes with coverage of BP Management knowledge and skill areas including KPI, BAM, Process Simulation and Optimization, and Modeling ROI; industry frameworks for Process Quality, Metrics, Governance, and Regulatory Compliance.  

Examination Number: ........................ OMG-OCEB2-BUSINT200
Duration: ............................................. 105 minutes for residents of English-speaking countries;
135 minutes for all others
Exam Fee: ........................................... US$200 (or equivalent in local currency) for residents of English-speaking countries; 
US$210 (or equivalent in local currency) for all others.
Number of Questions: ....................... 90
Minimum Passing Score: ................... 59 Correct Responses
Prerequisite: ...................................... Passing score on OCEB-2 Fundamental Exam 

This page starts with the Coverage Map for the OCEB-2 Business Intermediate Examination - a list of the topics and subtopics covered, and the approximate percentage of the exam that each occupies. Following the Coverage Map is the list of references, along with suggestions for study.


Intermediate Business Motivational Modeling
Modeling business, moving up from Fundamental level: All of the BMM defined in Chapters 7 and 8 of the BMM specification V1.1 (Full reference below). Includes referenced elements of business model defined externally: Organization Unit (in the BMM sense), Business Process, Business Rule (see References section, below); constructing BMM models and interpreting (brief) scenarios.
Business Process Modeling with BPMN
All of the remaining BPMN model elements and diagrams mentioned in the BPMN Spec, V2.0 (Full reference below), except that some events are specifically excluded as shown on the chart linked below under References. Also excluded are the Transaction Subprocess and Transaction (ACID) semantics (although Compensation is in scope), Auditing (Section 10.9), and Monitoring (Section 10.10). Note that XMI is never included, and attributes are not covered unless mentioned specifically. For data handling, the exam will cover data object (including Lifecycle and Accessibility), data store, data input, and data output as elements of processes built from the business point of view, but not delve into inputSets, outputSets, or other (typically implementation-dependent) details of data handling. Consider Global Task and Global Process; Handling Events; Complex Gateway; and Compensation. Limited aspects of the following; see the BPMN 2 References paragraph below for details: Conversations; Choreography; Execution Semantics (which is also described in a white paper on our list); Error Handling; Diagram Interchange. 
Decision Management and Modeling with DMN: 
DMN Basic Concepts, and Scope and Uses. Decision Requirements; Relating Decision Logic to Decision Requirements; and Decision Tables. Relation of DMN to BPMN. See the References section, below.
Business Rules Approach and Shared Business-Wide Vocabulary
Noun Concepts and Business Rules (BR) vocabulary; BR Basics; Two types of BR; BR and Business Processes. Creating and using Process-Specific Business Rules. Advantages of a shared business-wide vocabulary (SBVR Awareness).
Business Process Management Knowledge and Skills
BP Project Management: Activity Lifecycle, Ownership of Processes. Measurement and Optimization: CSFs and KPIs, Business Activity Monitoring, Scorecarding, Process Simulation and Optimization, BPM ROI, Model Value Analysis (When to model, and when not to), BPMS Tool fundamentals, BPM Center of Excellence basics, Organizational Change Management.
Process Quality and Governance Frameworks
Process Quality and Governance Frameworks: Questions at the Intermediate exam go one level deeper into the scope, goals, and structure of these major frameworks: SOX,  COBIT, and ITIL; OMG's Business Process Maturity Model (BPMM), 6 Sigma, and LEAN especially as it relates to BPM. 




This is a list of suggested references that is neither required nor complete, although it does contain suggestions for study more precise than the general topics list above. It is not expected that anyone accumulate this exact library of references to study for the exam.  We realize there are a few topics listed in the Coverage Map above that are not represented by explicit book or page references in this Study Material section, but we know that the capable Intermediate Level BPM Practitioner can find them, either in one of the listed references, or in a source of its own.

About Wikipedia: In general, we have found Wikipedia articles to be good sources of basic knowledge about topics covered by the OCEB-2examinations, but we have not listed any Wikipedia articles as sources here. We do not feel right about referencing an article that can change from minute to minute – making it possible for an article that reads perfectly well when one person studies it, to be incorrect (or, at least, inconsistent with an OCEB-2examination question) when another person studies from it later that day, or the next. We expect that many candidates will find Wikipedia a useful starting point for their study, although we expect that those at Intermediate and Advanced level will choose to go beyond Wikipedia for material on many topics.


The BPM experts who mapped the coverage and wrote the questions for the OCEB examinations found that no single book covered the range of material that a well-rounded BPM practitioner needs to know. In our lists for the different examinations, you'll find the books that we used to write the questions, but we don't think it's necessary to study this exact set in order to do well on the exam. In the entry for each book, we've listed the topics we covered from it; if you have another book that covers the same topics, or can find an alternate source somewhere else (such as on the Web), we suggest you use it instead of investing in a book that nearly duplicates it.

  • Fundamentals of Business Process Management
    Marlon Dumas et al - Springer, 2013  [ISBN-10: 3642331424]
    For BPM Lifecycle, Section 1.4.
    For Process Analysis, Chapter 7. Section 7.1.2 discusses Balanced Scorecard but also see the paper cited below. Sections 7.2.1 and 7.2.2 discuss time per cycle. Section 7.2.4 discusses cost per cycle, and includes an example calculation. Section 10.3 continues the presentation of performance analysis. 10.3.2 focuses on cost. 
    For Process Automation and BPMS, 9.1, 9.2, and 9.3. (Section 9.4 will be covered in the OCEB 2 Technical Intermediate examination.) 
    Coverage of the BPMN elements and techniques covered in this exam is scattered through the book - We will not attempt to cite section and page for this here. If you study enough to be well-prepared for your career, you'll be prepared for this exam also. 
  • Real-Life BPMN: Using BPMN 2.0 to Analyze, Improve, and Automate Processes in Your Company
    Jakob Freund, Bernd Rucker - CreateSpace, 2012 [ISBN-10: 1480034983]
    The following sections of the book are available for free download here, with our thanks to the authors. 
    For Error Handling, Secs.  2.3.4, 2.6.4, 2.8.3, 2.8.6, 
    For Compensaton: Sec. 2.6.9. 
    For Execution Semantics: Sec. 5.2 (all); note that Sec. 5.1, although not covered explicitly, provides context.
  • Business Process Change, Second Edition
    Paul Harmon - Morgan Kaufman, 2007. 
    Chapter 3 (Understanding the Enterprise, or an alternative source on systems-view vs. process-view of an enterprise)
    Note: The paper “Systems Thinking” by Peter Fingar, in the OCEB Fundamental reference list, also covers this topic but at a basic level.
  • Business Modeling: A Practical Guide to Realizing Business Value
    David Bridgeland and Ron Zahavi - MK/OMG Press, 2008. [ISBN-10: 0123741513]
    The referenced chapter on Model Value Analysis is posted for free download here
  • Business Rule Concepts: Getting to the Point of Knowledge, 4th edition
    Ronald Ross - BRS, 2013. [ISBN: 0-941049-14-0]
    NOTE: Prior editions are NOT equivalent. 
    Chapters 1, 2,  7, and 11.
  • Business Process Management with a Business Rules Approach
    Tom Debevoise, 2007. [ISBN 978-1-4196-7368-9 ]
    Chapters 3 and 4 (Business Rules in Business Processes, or an alternative reference on BRs in BPs such as Ch 11 of Ross, just above)
  • Change Management: The People Side of Change, Second Edition
    Jeffrey Hiatt and Timothy Creasey - Prosci, 2012. [ISBN: 978-1-930885-61-5]
    Chapters 1, 2, 4. 

Books about GRC and other industry frameworks are listed in their own section, below.

Papers (All downloadable free):

  • OCEB, Definition of Business Process
  • John Hall, Overview of OMG Business Motivation Model: Core Concepts.  
    Note: If you're new to the BMM, this paper by one of its principal authors will get you started, but you'll still need to study all of the sections assigned in the specification reference (below). 
  • Decision Management Solutions, Decision Modeling with DMN, White Paper. 
    Written by contributors to the DMN specification, this white paper introduces decision management and decision modeling in an accessible way.  
  • Kurz, Menge, and Misiak, Diagram Interchangeability in BPMN 2, White Paper. 
    Written by members of OMG's Model Interchange Working Group, this paper introduces DI at a level that should let you get started with it, and also about the level covered in this exam. The BPMN 2 spec, Sections 12.1.1 and 12.1.2, are also in scope. 
  • Kathy Long, Process Roles: Who are the Process Owners?, White Paper. 
    A detailed, and well-organized treatment of a topic that doesn't have an "official" definition. If your organization doesn't quite fit the role definitions and descriptions in this paper, it may benefit from one of the many others on the web, but this paper is still a good place to start. 
  • Jay April et al, Enhancing Business Process Management With Simulation Optimization, BPTrends. We've listed four different papers on S&O here (including this one and the next three). You don't have to study from more than one to prepare for the exam; use the variety to pick one close to your area, or your learning style.
  • Denis Gagne, Modeling and Simulation in Business Process Management.  This is a slide presentation. The first nine slides are introduction; S&O material starts on slide 10. 
  • jBPM Simulation Tutorial: If you're planning to do S&O, or you're just curious to see what a simulation output looks like (and so what you can learn and benefit from it), have a look at this tutorial. All source code is included so you can run the simulations yourself, but the results are given too (and discussed) so you don't have to run the exercise in order to learn the lesson. 
  • K Clauberg, W Thomas, Signavio, BPM and Simulation White Paper. Another good description of S&O. The final section is product-specific; of course none of the product-specific material will be on the exam and we don't mean to endorse any vendor's product - but we're pleased to link to any vendor's paper or website that presents general material in a useful way. 
  • Paul Harmon, BPTrends, Balanced Scorecard. A good high-level summary. For the exam, concentrate on the first few pages but the rest of the paper looks interesting too. 
  • EI Dynamics, A Beginner’s Guide to Business Activity Monitoring (BAM). A thorough and recent (late 2013) description of BAM.   
  • WebMethods, Business Activity Monitoring (BAM) The New Face of BPM. This somewhat dated (2006) paper is still useful, but shouldn't be your only source on BAM. Use the reference just above, or some other source, in addition. 
  • Nathaniel Palmer, OpenText, Building a Business Case for BPM. A well-written paper that works through the development of a BPM project, building the business case along the way. Two case studies, one including detailed ROI calculations, back up the author's conclusions. For a reference on Model Value Analysis, see Bridgeland and Zahavi under Books, above. 
  • Ed Walters, What are CSFs and KPIs? Viewable here.
    Note: viewable but not downloadable free; or another tutorial reference on Critical Success Factors and Key Performance Indicators.
  • Richard A. Caralli, CMU, The Critical Success Factor Method: Establishing a Foundation for Enterprise Security ManagementThis admittedly long paper does a good job of explaining what CSFs are and (in the initial sections) how they differ from, e.g., goals and objectives (but note that it was written before BMM and so does not use BMM's definitions of these terms). Although it covers in much more detail than the exam, it provides a good resource for the serious practitioner. There's a shorter abstract and introduction here
  • IBM Redpaper: Lisa Dyer et al, Creating a BPM Center of Exellence (CoE). 
    This recent (Feb 2013) and extensive paper covers CoE practice and benefits in detail. 
  • Rich Seeley, Forrester Details “Secret Sauce” for BPM Success
    Discusses the positive impact of establishing a BPM Center of Excellence (CoE).
  • Derek Miers, The Keys to BPM Project Success 
    This paper, by a well-established BPM consultant, mentions CoE as a small part of its coverage of the many aspects that combine to make a BPM project successful, as well as pitfalls that may make it less so. 
  • BPTrends, Paul Harmon: Introduction to Evaluating BPMS Suites. This article, originally the introductory section to a larger report surveying vendors' BPM Suites, can be viewed as a BPM Suites Capabilities Overview. Software product evaluations go out of date quickly as versions replace versions, but the general descriptions in this introduction remain helpful (and we appreciate BPTrends' keeping it available on-line so we can use it as a reference). It's true that, as the authors point out in an introductory paragraph, recent additions to suites' capabilities are not discussed but the thoroughness of the treatment of basic capabilities keeps this article worthwhile. 

OMG and other Specifications (All Downloadable free):

  • Business Motivation Model Specification, V 1.1
    Chapters 1, 7, and 8. All BMM elements are in scope. Includes referenced elements of business model defined externally, and their connection to the business model - See Fig. 7.1 and Sections 7.3.8, 7.3.9. 7.3.10. Note that Appendix F.2 supplements Section 7.3.9, and Appendix F.3 supplements 7.3.10. Consider the connection between a BMM and Business Rules, and how business processes relate to strategies and tactics It may be useful to study Sections 7.4 and 7.5 to organize your understanding of the BMM, but the exam will not ask specific questions about the contents of these sections, nor will it ask specifically about the example given in Section 8.4.8 (although it is certainly possible to learn a lot about BMM by studying this example!). An informal reading of Annex B (metrics) may be helpful, as well as Annex G (categorization) although the exam does not expect that candidates will have memorized any of these categorizations. 
  • Decision Model and Notation (DMN), Beta 1 
    Chapter 5, Introduction to DMN (all, including subsections). For Chapters 6 (Decision Requirements), 7 (Relating Decision Logic to Decision Requirements), and 8 (Decision Table), the first two subsections .1 (Introduction) and .2 (Notation) are in scope but the third subsection .3 (Metamodel) will not be tested explicitly. Concepts presented in Chapter 11 (DMN Example) are in scope. Annex A (Relation to BPMN) is in scope. Decision Management and Modeling are emerging as important aspects of BPM practice, so familiarity with the capabilities of the DMN spec will be an advantage to candidates in their careers. 
  • Business Process Maturity Model Specification, V1.0
    Section 2.2 (Conformance)
    6.1 (Uses)
    Chapters 7, Introduction only
    Chapters 8-10
  • Business Process Model and Notation (BPMN), V2.0 
    The exam covers definition and use of most of the BPMN elements, plus the material in these chapters and sections:
    For Events Covered, see this chart. 
    For Event Handling, Error Handling, and Compensation: All of Section 10.4.6, All of Section 10.6 (including subsections), plus the description of Error in Table 10.88. For the Complex Gateway, note that Section 13.3.5 fills in a lot of detail not present in the first mention in Section 10.5.5. 
    For Conversations: Section 9.4 (Introduction and 9.4.2 only; no other subsections). 
    For Choreography: Chapter 11, Introduction (except Fig. 11.1) and Sect. 11.1 only. 
    For Execution Semantics: The breadth and depth of Chapter 13 far exceeds the coverage of execution semantics on this exam. For this exam, you only need to cover from the start of the chapter through Section 13.2.1. Also see Section 5.2 of the book Real-Life BPMN (referenced above), which presents the differences between a process model built for understanding and one built (or adapted, typically extensively) for execution. (To demonstrate your deeper mastery of BPMN Execution Semantics, take the OCEB 2 Technical Intermediate exam.) 
    For Diagram Interchange, the exam does not cover this topic from the POV of Ch 12, which was written for implementers, and not for users, of this capability. The white paper Diagram Interchangeability in BPMN 2referenced in full above, discusses this topic at a more suitable user level. In addition, the point about exchange of incomplete models presented in Section 15.1 of the spec will be relevant to many projects. 
    Note the re-definition in BPMN 2 of the terms Embedded Sub-process and Reusable Sub-process from the meanings used in BPMN 1.2, stated in the paragraph following Figure 10.28 in Section 10.2.5. These are now referred to as Sub-Process and Call Activity, respectively. The OCEB 2 exams will use the new terminology and semantics. 
    You do not need to study any of the class diagrams nor the XML Schemas shown in the BPMN spec document. However, candidates familiar with object-oriented concepts and UML will find that these class diagrams summarize essential aspects of the BPMN elements in a particularly concise way.  
  • Semantics of Business Vocabulary and Rules (SBVR), v1.2 
    Chapter 1, all. A familiarity with the concepts presented in Chapter 2 will be helpful, although this material will not be covered directly. NOTE That the referenced Annexes of this specification have been rearranged and re-labeled between versions 1.1 and 1.2. They are now independent documents and must be retrieved separately using the following links:. Annex E: Overview of the Approach except Sections E4.5, E.5 (including subsections), and E.6 (including subsections).  Annex F: The Business Rules Approach except Section F.4.

Industry Frameworks:

Unlike the Fundamental examination which quizzed very broadly, the Business Intermediate examination focuses on only three GRC frameworks plus three quality frameworks: SOX, CobiT, and ITIL on the GRC side, and BPMM, 6 Sigma, and LEAN on the quality side There are multiple good sources for all of them; we think our list includes some very good ones but, if you already have a reference, go ahead and use it. Several of these frameworks (CobiT, e.g.) are covered by definition or description documents which may be downloaded free directly from their sponsoring organization's website, although these source documents may not be a good place to start studying!

Executive's Guide to IT Governance: Robert R. Moeller, Wiley, 2013. [ISBN 1118138619] This book presents the three Governance frameworks at the level covered by this exam - SOx in Chapter 2; COBIT in Chapter 5; and ITIL in Chapter 6. There's a lot of book beyond these chapters, of course, and you'll be better prepared for a career as a leader in BPM if you spend some time with it and keep the book on the shelf in your office, near your workspace.  

SOX: The Sarbanes-Oxley Act is covered in Moeller's Guide, referenced above. If you don’t have access to the Guide, you should study the scope and goals of SOX, and know the major and high-impact Sections with their scopes and goals.

COBIT: COBIT is covered in Moeller's Guide, referenced above. Alternatively, ISACA presents a useful summary of COBIT on this web page. (Be sure to scroll down and read the 5 Principles and 7 Enablers below the break.) For a bit more detail, download this powerpoint presentation labeled "An Introduction" . You can download COBIT 5 for free here- useful if you plan to use COBIT in your work - but you don't need to study beyond the website, powerpoint, or material in Moeller for this exam. 

ITIL: ITIL is covered in Moeller's Guide, referenced above. Alternatively, you can study from this Introductory Overview booklet available for free on-line. The booklet covers ITIL more thoroughly than the exam does; you can do well on this section of the exam (and know enough about ITIL to know when it might help in your career) by studying through Chapter 4. Still, a quick look at the introductory paragraphs to the remaining chapters could be useful too. 

BPMM may be studied from the cited sections of the specification, referenced above.

Six Sigma: Craig Gygi et al, Six Sigma for Dummies, Second Edition, Wiley, 2012. ISBN-10: 1118120353, or another suitable reference or tutorial. (It isn't necessary to buy a separate book to learn Six Sigma at the level covered by this exam.) Candidates should know the range of concepts included in Six Sigma, and their definitions.

LEAN:  Philip Schume, IBM: BPM and Lean -- a powerful combination for process improvement (White paper). The exam covers the initial presentation of LEAN and the next section on How business process management complements Lean. Because we don't cover methodologies in our certification, that's as far as you have to study but, if you're interested to see how one methodology combines BPM and LEAN, read on. 

For more information or questions about the OMG Certification Program, contact  certificationinfo@omg.org.

OCUP, OCRES, OCEB and OCSMP are joint programs of the OMG and the UML Technology Institute (UTI).